Microbial isolate for the production of quality white pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

G.S. Sreekala, K.S. Meenakumari, S. Vigi

Abstract


White pepper, the value added product of black pepper is traditionally produced by decortications of ripe or dried black pepper berries. Excessive time taken for retting imparts off odour to the traditionally prepared white pepper making the process and product less acceptable. An experiment was conducted to standardise a microbial method that could reduce the retting period and off odour. Screening of 25 microbial isolates comprising 21 bacterial and 4 fungi was undertaken. The experiment was replicated four times. Six best isolates (five bacteria and one fungus) which reduced retting period and produced good colour and appearance to the white pepper were selected by visual observation. Selected six isolates were inoculated again on the ripe berries in four replications along with uninoculated control. Three bacterial isolates were found very effective to reduce the retting period by half compared to control. Isolate I1 could ret the ripe berries with minimum time (4.25 days) and produce white pepper which had superior white colour and appearance and which was on par with uninoculated control as per sensory score. The odour of the white pepper produced by all isolates was significantly better than uninoculated control. Quality parameters, such as essential oil and oleoresin produced by the best isolate (I1), was on par with the control. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterisation of the best three isolates was done. The 16S r DNA sequencing (1500bp) revealed that isolate I1 was a relative of Bacillus pumilus. White pepper produced by the isolate of Bacillus pumilis was superior as it required reduced retting period with product having less off odour, suggesting that the isolate could be used for commercial production of white pepper. The other two isolates belonged to Rhizobium and Sphingobacterium genus.


Keywords


White pepper,Piper nigrum L.,Bacillus pumilus, Isolation ,Microbial isolate Retting

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alkorta, I., Garbisu, G., Llama M.J., Serra J.L. 1998. Industrial applications of pectic enzymes: a review. Process Biochem. 33:21–28

Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kingston R.E, Moore D.D. 2002. Short Protocols in Molecular Biology. 5th edn. John Wiley and Sons Publications, New York.

FSSAI, [ Food Safety and Standards Authority of India ] 2015. Lab Manual of Methods of Analysis of Foods, Spices and Condiments. Food Safety and Standards Authority of India, New Delhi P.50.

Gopinathan, K.M. and Manilal, V.B. 2004. Pectinolytic decortication of pepper (Piper nigrum L.). J. Food Sci. Technol. 41, 74–77

IPC 2016. .International Pepper Community. Retrieved from http://www.ipcnet.org/index_n.php

Kotchoni O.S.,Shonukan O.O., and Gachomo W.E.2003.Bacillus pumilusBpCRI 6, a promising candidate for cellulase production under conditions of catabolite repression ,African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 2 (6), pp. 140–146, Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB

Krieg, N.R. and Holt, J.G. 1984 . Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, London

Lane DJ, 1991. 16S/23S rRNA sequencing.Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics, (ed.) E. Stackebrandt& M. Goodfellow. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 115–175.

Mandalari, G.,Bennett,R.N.,Kirby,A.R., LoCurto,R.B. Bisignano,G., Waldron, K.W.andFaulds, C.B.2006. Enzymatic hydrolysis of flavonoids and pectic oligosaccharides from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54, pp. 8307-8313

McCue, P.and Shetty,K. 2003. Role of carbohydrate-cleaving enzymes in phenolic antioxidant mobilization from whole soybean fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus. Food Biotechnology, 17 pp. 27-37

Saranya, P., Kumari, H. S., Rao, B. P. and Sekaran, G. Lipase production from a novel thermo-tolerant and extreme acidophile Bacillus pumilus using palm oil as the substrate and treatment of palm oil-containing wastewater. Environ. Sci. Pollut. R21, 3907–3919 (2014).

Steinhaus M, Schieberle P.2005.Role of the fermentation process in off-odorant formation in white pepper: on-site trial in Thailand.J. Agric Food Chem. 53(15):6056-60.

Thankamony, A., Menon, N., Omanakuttyamma, M., Sreedharan, V.P. and Narayanan, C.S. (1999) Bacterial removal of skin from pepper. Spice Ind. 12, 10–11.

Vinod, V. , Kumar, A. and Zachariah,T.J. 2014. Isolation, characterization and identification of pericarp-degrading bacteria for the production of off-odour-free white pepper from fresh berries of Piper nigrum L. Journal of Applied Microbiology 116, 890--902 . The Society for Applied Microbiology


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


A KAU publication [CODEN: JTAGEI; ISSN 0971-636X; eISSN 0973-5399]