Compatibility of Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens with plant protection chemicals and fertilizers in cardamom

M. K. Dhanya, K.B. Anjumol, M. Murugan, K. B. Deepthy

Abstract


An in vitro experiment was conducted with the objective to find out the suitability of combination of plant protection chemicals (insecticides and fungicides) and fertilizers (urea, urea granules, single super phosphate, muriate of potash, diammonium phosphate, bone meal and micronutrient mixture) with antagonists like Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas flourescens used in the integrative cardamom farming situation in Kerala. Thirty three chemicals were tested for their compatibility individually and in combinations. Trichoderma viride showed good compatibility (100 percent) with insecticides (imidacloprid, spinosad, chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide and acephate), fungicides (potassium phosphonate and fosetyl aluminium) and fertilizers (urea, urea granules, single super phosphate, muriate of potash and micronutrient mixture). Incompatibility of T. viride was observed with insecticides (quinalphos and Azadirachta indica pongamia pinnata oil mixture) and fungicides (carbendazim, hexaconazole, potassium phosphonate + hexaconazole mixture and captan + hexaconazole mixture). Hundred per cent compatibility was noticed for Pseudomonas fluorescens with insecticides (pongamia and neem oil mixture, acephate, quinalphos, chlorantraniliprole, dimethoate, imidacloprid and flubendiamide), fungicides (hexaconazole and potassium phosphonate + hexaconazole mixture) and fertilizers (SSP, MOP, urea, bone meal and urea granules) at the recommended concentration. Insecticides like chlorpyriphos, acetamiprid, carbosulfan, and fungicides such as fosetyl aluminium, copper hydroxide, COC, cymoxanil + mancozeb mixture as well as micronutrient mixture significantly inhibited the growth of P. fluorescens. For integrated pest management in small cardamom farming, these chemicals along with the respective antagonists are recommended so as to reduce the environmental risk due to toxic pesticides and increase the sustainability of cardamom farming.

Keywords


Botanicals, Cardamom, Compatibility, Fertilizers, Fungicides, Insecticides, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Trichoderma viride

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A KAU publication [CODEN: JTAGEI; ISSN 0971-636X; eISSN 0973-5399]