Biology of rock bulrush (Schoenoplectus juncoides) in the wet land rice fields of south Kerala

S. Fathima Umkhulzum, M. Ameena, P. Shalini Pillai

Abstract


Biology of rock bulrush (Schoenoplectus juncoides (Roxb.) Palla), an emerging sedge weed in the lowland rice fields of south Kerala was studied during rabi 2017-2018. It was observed to grow as an annual in cultivated lowlands but exhibited perennial nature in undisturbed fields. The weed completed its life cycle through five phenological stages viz,. germination, seedling, flowering, spike development and seed maturity. Prolific seed production (528–1120 seeds/plant) and sprouting of vegetative buds from rhizomes make rock bulrush a persistent weed.


Keywords


biology, phenology, propagation, rock bulrush, rhizome, sedge weed

Full Text:

PDF

References


Caton, B. P., Hill, J. E., and Johnson, D. E. 2010. A Practical Field Guide to Weeds of Rice in Asia (2nd Ed.), International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines, 58p.

Chiang, M. Y. 1983. Emergence, growth and reproduction of eleven paddy weeds in two seasons. Weed Sci. Bull. 4: 1-18.

Donayre, D. K. M., Martin, E. C., Santiago, S. E., and Lee, J. T. 2016. Weeds in Irrigated and Rainfed Lowland Rice fields in the Philippines. Philippine Rice Research Institute, Philippines, 156p.

Eickhoff, D. 2009. Native plants of Hawaii- Schoenoplectiella juncoides [on line]. Available:http://nativeplants.hawaii.edu/plan t/view/Schoenoplectiella_juncoides.[8 January 2018].

Hamamura, K. 2002. The characteristic of the water imbibition of seeds of Scirpus juncoides Roxb. var. ohwianus T. Koyama. J. Weed Sci. Technol. 47(3): 161-167.

IRRI [International Rice Research Institute]. 2017. Schoenoplectus juncoides [on line]. Available:http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/training/fact-sheets/item/schoenoplectus-juncoides. [10 November 2017].

Ishikura, N. and Soga, Y. 1978. Studies on the ecology and control of the perennial weed Scirpus in paddy fields- seed ripening of Scirpus juncoides Roxb. var. ohwianus T. Koyama and changes in germinability with seed ripening. Weed Res. 23(1): 19-23.

Khalid, S. and Sadar-U-Siddiqui. 2014. Weeds of Pakistan: Cyperaceae. Pakist. J. Weed Sci. Res. 20(2): 233-263.

Kumar, S., Pandey, N., Kumar, A., Singh, A. K., Gopal, T., and Kumar, D. 2018. Effect of establishment methods and weed management practices on economics of direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.). Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci. 7(4): 1473-1480.

Le Bourgeois, T., Carrara, A. M., Dodet, W., Dogley, A., Gaungoo, P., Grard, Y., Ibrahim, E., Jeuffrault, G., Lebreton, P., Poilecot, J., Prosperi, J. A., Randriamampianina, A. P., Andrianaivo, and Théveny, F. 2008. Schoenoplectiella juncoides (Roxb.) Lye [on line]. Available: http://portal.wikwio.org/biodiv/species/show /285.

Mezni, M. A., Albouchi, E., Bizid, and Hamza, M. 2010. Minerals uptake, organic osmotica contents and water balance in alfalfa under salt stress. J. Phytol. 2: 1-12.

Mukherjee, P. K., Sarkar, A., and Maity, S. K. 2008. Critical period of crop-weed competition in transplanted and wet seeded kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.) under Terai conditions. Indian J. Weed Sci. 40(3/4): 147-152.

NPPC [National Plant Protection Centre]. 2017. Scirpus juncoides- Cyperaceae [on line]. Available:http://www.nppc.gov.bt/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/8.-Scirpus-juncoides.pdf. [10 November 2017].

Pal, H. and Choudhury, M. D. 2014. Taxonomic status of cyperaceae of Southern Assam. Pleione 8(1): 149 - 157.

Pons, T. L. and Schroder, H. F. 1986. Significance of temperature fluctuation and oxygen concentration for germination of the rice field weeds Fimbristylis littoralis and Scirpus juncoides. Oecol. 68(2): 315-319.

Raj, S. K. 2016. Herbicide mixtures for weed management in direct seeded puddled rice (Oryza sativa L). Ph.D thesis. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, 315p.

Ramzan, M. 2003. Evaluation of various planting methods in rice-wheat cropping system. Rice Crop Rep. 4-5.

Sasidharan, N. 2017. Indian Medicinal Plants and Indian Biodiversity Portal. Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi. 702p.

Watanabe, H., Miyahara, M., and Shibayama, H. 1991. Seasonal changes in seed dormancy and emergence of Scirpus juncoides Roxb. subsp. juncoides in paddy fields. Weed Res. 36: 362-371.

Zahoor, I., Ahmad, S. A., Hameed, M., Nawaz, T., and Tarteel, A. 2012. Comparative salinity tolerance of Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl and Schoenoplectus juncoides (Roxb.) Palla, the candidate sedges for rehabilitation of saline wetlands. Pakist. J. Bot. 44: 1-6.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


A KAU publication [CODEN: JTAGEI; ISSN 0971-636X; eISSN 0973-5399]