Utilization of biowaste from commercial lotus cultivation by incorporating rhizome flour for low glycaemic cookies

A. Sruthi, Seeja Thomachan Panjikkaran, E.R. Aneena, Berin Pathrose, Deepu Mathew


Lotus rhizome is a huge biowaste from the commercial lotus flower cultivation and its disposal is a serious issue. Physico-chemical analyses of fresh lotus rhizomes were performed and alternative use of lotus rhizomes in commercial cookie making industry was experimented. Cookies were prepared by supplementing different proportions of lotus rhizome flour to wheat flour (10-100%) and their nutritional, sensory, antioxidant properties and glycaemic indices were studied. Composition analysis had shown that the lotus rhizomes are good source of starch, carbohydrates, protein, fat, dietary fibre, vitamin C, calcium, iron, phosphorus and potassium. Cookies prepared from 10% lotus rhizome flour and 90% wheat flour was most acceptable in sensory evaluation and richer in minerals, unsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids, phenols and antioxidant value. The glycaemic index and total fat content were lower in lotus rhizome flour incorporated cookies, pointing that the biowaste from lotus cultivation can be efficiently used in biscuit industry.


Food fortification; edible flowers; Nelumbo nucifera; organic waste; value addition; waste utilization

Full Text:



Alcantara, R.M., Hurtada, W.A. and Dizon, E.I. 2013. The nutritional value and phytochemical components of taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] powder and its selected processed foods. Nutrition and Food Science, 3: 207. doi: 10.4172/2155-9600.1000207

Ammar, M.S., Hegazy, A.E. and Bedeir, S.H. 2009. Using of taro flour as partial substitute of wheat flour in bread making. World Journal of Dairy and Food Sciences, 4: 94-99.

Anaveri, R. 2016. Standardisation of functional baked products utilising under exploited tubers. M. Sc. (Home Science) thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, India, 115p.

Arshad, M.U., Anjum, F.M. and Zahoor, T. 2007. Nutritional assessment of cookies supplemented with defatted wheat germ. Food Chemistry, 102: 123-128. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.04.040

Asumugha, V.U. and Uwalaka, B.C. 2000. Chemical and organoleptice evaluation of snacks developed from cocoyam (Colocasis esculenta, Xanthosoma mafafa) and wheat (Triticum spp.) composite flours. Nigerian Agricultural Journal, 31: 78-88.

Bala, A., Gul, K. and Riar, C.S. 2015. Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared from wheat flour supplemented with cassava and water chestnut flours. Cogent Food and Agriculture, 1: 1019815. doi: 10.1080/23311932.2015.1019815

Blois, M.N. 1958. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature, 29: 1199-2000. doi: 10.1038/1811199a0

Chandraprabha, S. 2017. Standardization and quality evaluation of millet based designer Vermicelli. M. Sc. (Home Science) thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, India, 207p.

Chinma, C.E. and Gernah, D.I. 2007. Physicochemical and sensory properties of cookies produced from cassava/soyabean/mango composite flours. Journal of Food Technology, 5: 256-260.

Chinma, C.E., Igbabul, B.D. and Omotayo, O.O. 2012. Quality characteristics of cookies prepared from unripe plantain and defatted sesame flour blends. American Journal of Food Technology, 7: 398-408. doi: 10.3923/ajft.2012.398.408

Choe, J.H., Jang, A., Choi, J.H., et al. 2010. Antioxidant activities of lotus leaves (Nelumbo nucifera) and barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare) extracts. Food Science and Biotechnology, 19: 831-836. doi: 10.1007/s10068-010-0117-8

De la Barca, A.M.C., Rojas-Martínez, M.E., Islas-Rubio, A.R., et al. 2010. Gluten-free breads and cookies of raw and popped amaranth flours with attractive technological and nutritional qualities. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 65: 241-246. doi: 10.1007/s11130-010-0187-z

Dhankhar, P. 2013. A study on development of coconut based gluten free cookies. International Journal of Engineering and Science Invention, 2: 10-19.

Eneche, E.H. 1999. Biscuit-making potential of millet/pigeon pea flour blends. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 54: 21-27. doi: 10.1023/A:1008031618117

Eswaran, S. 1994. Home Scale Fruit Preservation and Bakery, New century Book House (P) Ltd., Chennai, India, pp 77.

Faruk, M.O., Amin, M.Z., Sana, N.K., et al. 2012. Biochemical analysis of two varieties of water chestnuts (Trapa sp.). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 15: 1019-26. doi:10.3923/pjbs.2012.1019.1026

Geng, Z., Zongdao, C. and Yimin, W. 2007. Physicochemical properties of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) and kudzu (Pueraria hirsute Matsum.) starches. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 42: 1449-1455. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01363.

Hadayat, U., Khan, R., Mujtaba, S., et al. 2018. Ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and nutritional analysis of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn rhizome. MOJ Food Processing and Technology, 6: 1-6.

Ham, Y.K., Hwang, K.E., Song, D.H., et al. 2017. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) rhizome as an antioxidant dietary fiber in cooked sausage: effects on physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Korean Journal of Food Science and Animal Resources, 37: 219-227. doi: 10.5851/kosfa.2017.37.2.219

Handa, C., Goomer, S. and Siddhu, A. 2012. Physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation of fructoligosaccharide enriched cookies. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49: 192-199.

Hooda, S. and Jood, S. 2005. Organoleptic and nutritional evaluation of wheat biscuits supplemented with untreated and treated fenugreek flour. Food Chemistry, 90: 427-435. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.05.006

Ismail, T., Akhtar, S., Riaz, M., et al. 2014. Effect of pomegranate peel supplementation on nutritional, organoleptic and stability properties of cookies. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 65: 661-666. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2014.908170

Jellinek, G. 1985. Sensory Evaluation of Food: Theory and Practice, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England, pp 596.

Jiang, Y., Ng, T.B., Liu, Z., et al. 2011. Immunoregulatory and anti-HIV-1 enzyme activities of antioxidant components from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) rhizome. Bioscience Reports, 31: 381-390. doi: 10.1042/BSR20100062

Jung, I.C., Park, H.S., Choi, Y.J., et al. 2011. The effect of adding lotus rhizome and leaf powder on the quality characteristics of cooked pork patties. Korean Journal of Food and Cookery Science, 27: 783-791. doi: 10.9724/kfcs.2011.27.6.783

Kandeler, R. and Ullrich, W.R. 2009. Symbolism of plants: examples from European-Mediterranean culture presented with biology and history of art: July: Lotus. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60: 2461–2464. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erp166

Kaur, M., Singh, V. and Kaur, R. 2017. Effect of partial replacement of wheat flour with varying levels of flaxseed flour on physicochemical, antioxidant and sensory characteristics of cookies. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre, 9: 14-20. doi: 10.1016/j.bcdf.2016.12.002

Khattak, K.F. and Simpson, T.J. 2009. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbial load, nutrient composition and free radical scavenging activity of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 78: 206-212. doi: 10.1016/j.radphyschem.2008.11.001

Lee, M.W., Kim, J.S., Cho, S.M., et al. 2001. Anti-diabetic constituent from the nodes of lotus rhizome (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn). Natural Product Sciences, 7(4): 107–109.

Li, S., Li, X., Lamikanra, O., et al. 2017. Effect of cooking on physicochemical properties and volatile compounds in lotus root (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn). Food Chemistry, 216: 316-323. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.044

Ma, Y., Rang, Y., Yang, R., et al. 2018. Effect of white kidney bean extracts on estimated glycemic index of different kinds of porridge. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 96: 576-582. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2018.06.018

Masoodi, L. and Bashir, V. 2012. Fortification of biscuit with flaxseed: biscuit production and quality evaluation. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 1: 06-09.

Mukherjee, K., Das, J.B.R.S., Balasubramanian, R., et al. 1995. Antidiarrhoeal evaluation of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 27: 262-264.

Mukherjee, P.K., Mukherjee, D., Maji, A.K., et al. 2009. The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) – phytochemical and therapeutic profile. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 61: 407-422. doi: 10.1211/jpp.61.04.0001

NIN [National Institute of Nutrition], 2002. Nutritive Value of Indian Foods, Indian Council of Medical Research, Hyderabad, 43p.

Oyeyinka, S.A., Oyeyinka, A.T., Karim, O.R., et al. 2014. Biscuit making potentials of flours from wheat and plantain at different stages of ripeness. Croatian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 6: 36-42.

Pahila, J.G., Lozada, E.C., Bedano, J.A.F., et al. (2013) Flour substitution and nutrient fortification of butter cookies with underutilized agricultural products. Advances in Agriculture and Botanics, 5: 16-22.

Paudel, K.R. and Panth, N. 2015. Phytochemical profile and biological activity of Nelumbo nucifera. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 789124. doi: 10.1155/2015/789124

Paul, P. and Bhattacharyya, S. 2015. Antioxidant profile and sensory evaluation of cookies fortified with juice and peel powder of fresh Pomegranate (Punica granatum). International Journal of Agriculture and Food Science, 5: 85-91.

Rai, S., Wahile, A., Mukherjee, K., et al. 2006. Antioxidant activity of Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus) seeds. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 104: 322–327. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.09.025

Saeedi, F. and Ahmadg, W. 2011. Preparation and evaluation of dietetic cookies for vulnerable segments using black cumin fixed oil. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10: 451-456.

Salmeron, J., Ascherio, A., Rimm, E.B., et al. 1997. Dietary fibre, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care, 20: 545-550.

Seevaratnam, P.B., Premalatha, M.R., Sundaram, S.P., et al. 2012. Studies on the preparation of biscuits incorporated with potato flour. World Journal of Dairy and Food Sciences, 7: 79-84. doi: 10.5829/idosi.wjdfs.2012.7.1.6148

Shad, M.A., Nawaz, H., Hussain, M., et al. 2011. Proximate composition and functional properties of rhizome of lotus (Nelumba nucifera) from Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43: 895-904.

Sheikh, S.A. 2014. Ethno-medicinal uses and pharmacological activities of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2: 42-46.

Srilakshmi, B. 2011. Dietetics, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, pp 435.

Stroher, G.L., Rodrigues, A.C., Gohara, K.A., et al. 2012. Fatty acid quantification in different types of cookies with emphasis on trans fatty acids. Acta Scientiarum Technology, 34: 105-110. doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i1.10304

Sullivan, D.M. and Carpenter, D.E. 1993. Methods of Analysis for Nutrition Labeling, AOAC International, ISBN: 09-355-84528, 624 p.

Swaminathan, M. 1974. Essentials of Food and Nutrition, Ganesh and Company, Madras, pp 498.

Syed, A., Singh, S. and Longowal, P. 2012. Physicochemical, thermal, rheological and morphological characteristics of starch from three Indian lotus root (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) cultivars. Food Processing and Technology, S1, 003.

Thanushree, M.P., Sudha, M.L. and Crassina, K. 2017. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) rhizome powder as a novel ingredient in bread sticks: rheological characteristics and nutrient composition. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 11: 1795-1803. doi: 10.1007/s11694-017-9561-y

Tsuruta, Y., Nagao, K., Shirouchi, B., et al. 2012. Effects of lotus root (the edible rhizome of Nelumbo nucifera) on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese diabetic db/db mice. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 76: 462-466. doi: 10.1271/bbb.110745

Tyagi, S.K., Manikantan, M.R., Oberoi, H.S., et al. 2007. Effect of mustard flour incorporation on nutritional, textural and organoleptic characteristics of biscuits. Journal of Food Engineering, 80: 1043-1050. doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.08.016

Ubbor, S.C. and Akobundu, E.N.T. 2009. Quality characteristics of cookies from composite flours of watermelon seed, cassava and wheat. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8: 1097-1102.

Vora, J.D. and Srinivasan, P. 2016. Product development and organoleptic assessment of lotus stem (Nelumbo nucifera) milkshake. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science Toxicology and Food Technology, 10: 37-43. doi: 10.9790/2402-1005013743

Waheed, A., Rasool, G. and Asghar, A. 2010. Effect of interesterified palm and cottonseed oil blends on cookie quality. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1: 402-406.

Wang, Q. and Zhang, X. 2005. Lotus Flower Cultivars in China, China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing.

Yang, D.M., Wang, Q.S., Ke, L.Q., et al. 2007. Antioxidant activities of various extracts of lotus (Nelumbo nuficera Gaertn) rhizome. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 16: 158-163.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

A KAU publication [CODEN: JTAGEI; ISSN 0971-636X; eISSN 0973-5399]